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The Psychological Impact of 'Mild Lockdown' in Japan during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Nationwide Survey under a Declared State of Emergency.

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dc.contributor.author Yamamoto, Tetsuya
dc.contributor.author Uchiumi, Chigusa
dc.contributor.author Suzuki, Naho
dc.contributor.author Yoshimoto, Junichiro
dc.contributor.author Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric
dc.date.accessioned 2021-01-07T05:57:04Z
dc.date.available 2021-01-07T05:57:04Z
dc.date.issued 2020-12-15
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10061/14205
dc.description.abstract This study examined the psychological distress caused by non-coercive lockdown (mild lockdown) in Japan. An online survey was conducted with 11,333 people (52.4% females; mean age = 46.3 ± 14.6 years, range = 18–89 years) during the mild lockdown in the seven prefectures most affected by COVID-19 infection. Over one-third (36.6%) of participants experienced mild-to-moderate psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale [K6] score 5–12), while 11.5% reported serious psychological distress (K6 score ≥ 13). The estimated prevalence of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥ 10) was 17.9%. Regarding the distribution of K6 scores, the proportion of those with psychological distress in this study was significantly higher when compared with the previous national survey data from 2010, 2013, 2016, and 2019. Healthcare workers, those with a history of treatment for mental illness, and younger participants (aged 18–19 or 20–39 years) showed particularly high levels of psychological distress. Psychological distress severity was influenced by specific interactional structures of risk factors: high loneliness, poor interpersonal relationships, COVID-19-related sleeplessness and anxiety, deterioration of household economy, and work and academic difficulties. Even when non-coercive lockdowns are implemented, people’s mental health should be considered, and policies to prevent mental health deterioration are needed. Cross-disciplinary public–private sector efforts tailored to each individual’s problem structure are important to address the mental health issues arising from lockdown. ja_JP
dc.language.iso en ja_JP
dc.publisher MDPI ja_JP
dc.relation.isreplacedby https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/24/9382 ja_JP
dc.rights © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). ja_JP
dc.subject COVID-19 ja_JP
dc.subject pandemic ja_JP
dc.subject lockdown ja_JP
dc.subject psychological distress ja_JP
dc.subject mental health ja_JP
dc.subject depression ja_JP
dc.subject anxiety ja_JP
dc.subject loneliness ja_JP
dc.subject K6 ja_JP
dc.subject PHQ-9 ja_JP
dc.title The Psychological Impact of 'Mild Lockdown' in Japan during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Nationwide Survey under a Declared State of Emergency. ja_JP
dc.type.nii Journal Article ja_JP
dc.contributor.transcription ヨシモト, ジュンイチロウ
dc.contributor.alternative 吉本, 潤一郎
dc.textversion none ja_JP
dc.identifier.eissn 1660-4601
dc.identifier.jtitle International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ja_JP
dc.identifier.volume 17 ja_JP
dc.identifier.issue 24 ja_JP
dc.relation.doi 10.3390/ijerph17249382 ja_JP
dc.identifier.NAIST-ID 73296782 ja_JP


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