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Blind Watermarking for 3D Printed Objects by Locally Modifying Layer Thickness

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dc.contributor.author Arnaud, Delmotte en
dc.contributor.author Tanaka, Kenichiro en
dc.contributor.author Kubo, Hiroyuki en
dc.contributor.author Funatomi, Takuya en
dc.contributor.author Mukaigawa, Yasuhiro en
dc.date.accessioned 2020-01-14T08:37:32Z en
dc.date.available 2020-01-14T08:37:32Z en
dc.date.issued 2019-12-25 en
dc.identifier.issn 1941-0077 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10061/13958 en
dc.description.abstract We propose a new blind watermarking algorithm for three-dimensional (3D) printed objects that has applications in metadata embedding, robotic grasping, counterfeit prevention, and crime investigation. Our method can be used on fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printers and works by modifying the printed layer thickness on small patches of the surface of an object. These patches can be applied to multiple regions of the object, thereby making it resistant to various attacks such as cropping, local deformation, local surface degradation, or printing errors. The novelties of our method are the use of the thickness of printed layers as a one-dimensional carrier signal to embed data, the minimization of distortion by only modifying the layers locally, and one-shot detection using a common paper scanner. To correct encoding or decoding errors, our method combines multiple patches and uses a two-dimensional (2D) parity check to estimate the error probability of each bit to obtain a higher correction rate than a naive majority vote. The parity bits included in the patches have a double purpose because, in addition to error detection, they are also used to identify the orientation of the patches. In our experiments, we successfully embedded a watermark into flat surfaces of 3D objects with various filament colors using a standard FDM 3D printer, extracted it using a common 2D paper scanner and evaluated the sensitivity to surface degradation and signal amplitude. en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher IEEE en
dc.rights This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. en
dc.subject Blind watermarking en
dc.subject Layer thickness en
dc.subject Metadata en
dc.subject Paper scanner en
dc.subject 3D printing en
dc.title Blind Watermarking for 3D Printed Objects by Locally Modifying Layer Thickness en
dc.type.nii Journal Article en
dc.contributor.transcription タナカ, ケンイチロウ ja
dc.contributor.transcription クボ, ヒロユキ ja
dc.contributor.transcription フナトミ, タクヤ ja
dc.contributor.transcription ムカイガワ, ヤスヒロ ja
dc.contributor.alternative 田中, 賢一郎 ja
dc.contributor.alternative 久保, 尋之 ja
dc.contributor.alternative 舩冨, 卓哉 ja
dc.contributor.alternative 向川, 康博 ja
dc.textversion publisher en
dc.identifier.jtitle IEEE Transactions on Multimedia en
dc.relation.doi 10.1109/TMM.2019.2962306 en
dc.identifier.NAIST-ID 85624492 en
dc.identifier.NAIST-ID 84364090 en
dc.identifier.NAIST-ID 74651274 en
dc.identifier.NAIST-ID 74651670 en

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